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Dr(Mrs). Amitabye LUXIMON RAMMA

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Senior Lecturer



1.       Title: Health Care Delivery System and the Reduction of Maternal and Child Mortality in Hospitals of Makurdi Benue State, Nigeria. 

Authors: Comfort EO, Luximon-Ramma A and Jamda AM

Synopsis: The objectives of this publication are to find the historical background of maternal and child health care delivery, the incidence of maternal and child mortality, causes of maternal and child mortality, challenges in accessing maternal health care services of Nigeria. Data for the study were sourced from both primary and secondary means. Primary data was drawn through questionnaire and hospital records. Questionnaire was distributed to a sample of 369 respondents out of 4,740 population of staff of four (4) purposely selected largest hospitals in Makurdi, Benue State. The sample size was determined through Taro Yamane’s formula while the Bourley’s proportional allocation formula was used to determine the sample size per each hospital. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics like tables, percentages, mean and standard deviation, while the test of hypotheses were done through Chi-square. The analyzed result shows that the availability of maternal and child health care services in the hospitals and accessibility of maternal and child health care services were poor. Furthermore, maternal and infant mortality is essentially high and increasing in hospitals of Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria. Several challenges are militating against effective healthcare delivery, therefore, the study recommended, among others, that government and other stakeholders should make conscious efforts to ensure that adequate facilities, tools, and equipment are provided for the hospitals to enhance the quality of maternal and child healthcare services in the Benue State of Nigeria.

Access: International Journal of Public Health,10 (1). DOI: 10.21522/TIJPH.2013.10.01.Art027 (March 2022)

2.       Title: Perceptions and Experiences about Device-Emitted Radiofrequency Radiation and its effects on selected Brain Health Parameters in Southwest Nigeria.


Authors: Owolabi J, Ilesanmi OS and Luximon-Ramma A

Synopsis: This research considered the perceptions and exposure-related experiences of people within a Nigerian population with respect to Radiofrequency Radiation. Structured and validated questionnaires were used to profile self-reported patterns of behaviour and sleep in humans. Questionnaire administration-electronic was opened for exactly one week, consisting of 25 specific questions and five open-ended questions [total = 30 questions]. A total population approach was adopted [N=~240]. Bivariate analysis using Chi-square tests were conducted to determine the association between knowledge of electronic gadgets as a source of radiofrequency radiation and sociodemographic characteristics of respondents. Binary logistic regression was used to determine the factors associated with good knowledge of electronic gadgets as a source of radiofrequency radiation. The level of statistical significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. The response rate was approximately 84%. Fatigue/tiredness (69.6%), attention deficit (69.1%) and headache (62.4%) ranked top amongst RFR-associated negative effects on mental health. Among the respondents, 29 (56.9%) among those above 20 years had good knowledge of radiofrequency radiation from electronic gadgets compared to 72 (47.2%) aged 20 years and below (X2 = 1.285, p = 0.257). Also, 45 (59.2%) of persons who lived in a town/village had good knowledge of radiofrequency radiation from electronic gadgets compared to 56 (44.4%) who lived in the city (X2 = 4.135, p = 0.042). Persons who lived in a town/village had nearly two times the odds of having good knowledge of RFR from electronic gadgets. The study showed that respondents had experienced significant and negative effects of RFR on their mental health. The current level of knowledge and awareness on the nature of RFR and exposures was just about average, indicating a critical and urgent need to educate the public on the subject.


Access: Cureus 13(9): Journal of Medical Science. DOI: 10.7759/cureus.18211. (September 23, 2021)


3.       Title: A Study of Radiofrequency Radiation (RFR) effects on the Brain Neurochemistry during Pre- and Postnatal Brain Development.


Authors: Owolabi JO, Ilesanmi OS and Luximon-Ramma V.

Synopsis: The research was designed to model animals which mimic the exposure to the radiofrequency radiation [RFR] by habitual users of RFR-enabled devices and to observe possible aberrations in behaviours that are attributable to exposures. The research was designed to model cases of continuous and intermittent exposures in human conditions, using Wistar rats. The primary objective of this study was to study intrauterine and postnatal exposure and study the effects brain structures, functions and behaviours in Wistar rats. The experiment started with 42 pregnant rats that were exposed to RFR [4G] to observe the possibilities of RFR-induced teratogenic effects. Thereafter, half of the offspring were sacrificed for their brains to be studied at birth. The other half was exposed to RFR to observe postnatal effects of RFR radiation until puberty. The exposure regimen was the same for the mothers and the offspring in each group. What varied was the duration of exposure per day being 6 hours, 24 hours and 24 hours. Experimental Wistar rats were housed in facilities that enabled exposure to specific dose (4G) of radiations during pregnancy (~21 days) and during postnatal days until day 35, marking approximately the point of puberty. Following the dissection of the rat, brain tissue samples were homogenized in buffered phosphate saline [PBS] and the supernatant was assayed for each neurotransmitter of interest. The results showed that RFR-exposure caused changes in neurotransmitters and enzyme neurochemistry. Cytochrome C oxidase enzyme and neurotransmitters especially dopamine, gamma-amino butyric acid, glutamine and serotonin and their activities levels were significantly altered especially with prolonged duration of RFR exposure. These findings would altogether suggest that radiofrequency radiation exposure might change brain neurochemistry permanently following exposure either during the intrauterine or the postnatal stage of life. The implications of these changes on later life mental health and neurological attributes will require further investigation.


Access: Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research, 33 (15): 53-63.                          DOI: 10.9734/JAMMR/2021/v33i1530986 (July 2021)